Enụgwụ

(Dupụ̀rụ̀ sì Enugu)
Enúgwu
Akwata Roundabout.jpg
ama ukwu, Nnụkwụ obodo, human settlement
Akụkụ nkeIgboland Dezie
Oge/afọ mmalite1909 Dezie
aha gọọmentiEnugu Dezie
akara alaEnugu Dezie
aha otutuCiutat del Carbó, Birnin kwal, Coal City Dezie
mba/obodoNaijiria Dezie
isi obodo nkeEnugwu Steti Dezie
dị na ngalaba nhazi mpagharaEnugwu Steti Dezie
nhazi ọnọdụ6°26′25″N 7°29′39″E Dezie
dị na mpaghara ogeUTC+01:00 Dezie
Nkwekọrịtara oke alaUdi, Ọká Dezie
webụsaịtịhttp://www.enugustate.gov.ng/ Dezie
Koodu ọkpụkpọ mpaghara042 Dezie

Enugu ( / eɪ ˈnuː ɡ uː / ( </img> / ) ay-NOO -goo ; Igbo ) [1] [2] bụ isi obodo Enugu State na Naijiria .Ọ dị na ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ Nigeria. Obodo ahụ nwere mmadụ 722,664 dịka ngụkọ Naijiria 2006 siri dị. Aha Enugu sitere na okwu Igbo abuo Élu ugwú pụtara “elu ugwu” nke na-egosi ọdịdị ala ugwu obodo. Aha Ochi chi obodo ahụ bụ Enugwu Ngwuo, bụ ebe a chọtara oji n’okpuru ya. Enugwu Ngwuo bụ otu n'ime obodo iri mebere agbụrụ Ngwuo, nke a na-akpọkarị ụmụ Ngwuako, onye nna ochie nke ezinụlọ. Ngwuako doziri Udeneogu, dike ya nwa n'elu ugwu (Enu-Ugwu) ka o chebe ebo na mbuso agha. Enugwu Ama Udeneogu, (Enugwu, ala Udeneogu) Ndị mmadụ bi n'elu ugwu wee na-akọ ugbo na ndagwurugwu gbara gburugburu. Ngwuo nwere oke na ebo Oshie n'ebe ndịda, agbụrụ Ojebeogene n'ebe ugwu yana agbụrụ Nkanu n'ọwụwa anyanwụ. Nchọpụta nke coal n'ugbo Enugwu Ngwuo gbadara na ndagwurugwu ahụ, dọtara ndị mmadụ niile na ụdị akụ ọhụrụ a chọtara, na-achọ ụzọ ndụ, na dị ka e gosiri na map nke atụmatụ mbụ maka ụlọ ọrụ gọọmentị, nke aha ya bụ Enugwu. Ọdụdọ gọọmentị Ngwo, nke bụ isi obodo mbụ nke obodo a na-akpọ Enugwu malitere n'ala Ngwuo wee kpọọ ya Enugwu Ngwuo ruo mgbe ọ nwetara ọkwa obodo, e wepụrụ okwu Ngwo maka ịdị mma nke ịkpọpụta okwu, ya mere. obodo nta nke Ngwuo muru obodo nke taa togoro buru nnukwu n'ime obodo, ma na-eto eto, na-ekpube obodo Nkanu di Nike na Akunino gbara ya gburugburu wee gbatịa Neke na Emene.

Kamgbe narị afọ nke iri na asaa ebe Enugu dị ugbu a bụ ndị Nike ( /n iː ˈkeɪ / nee-KAY ) nke ndị Igbo bi ; otu n'ime agbataobi Enugu ka na-ejigide aha ochie obodo ahụ Ogui . Na 1900 South Nigeria Protectorate hiwere site n'aka ndị ọchịchị colonial nke Alaeze Ukwu Britain . Nchọpụta nke coal site n'aka ndị colonial mere ka e wuo okporo ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè Eastern Line iji buru coal si n'ime ime obodo gaa n'ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri Port Harcourt, obodo e mere maka nzube a dị 243 kilometres (151 mi) south [3] nke ana akpo Enugu Coal Camp. A kpọgharịrị Enugwu aha ya bụ naanị Enugu wee wulite ya dịka otu n'ime obodo ole na ole dị n'Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ Afrịka sitere na kọntaktị Europe. Ka ọ na-erule 1958 Enugwu nwere ihe karịrị ndị ọrụ coal 8,000. As of 2005 ọnweghị nnukwu ọrụ ngwupụta coal fọdụrụ n'obodo ahụ.

Enugwu ghọrọ isi Ochichi obodo Eastern Region ka Naijiria nwechara nnwere onwe na 1960; mgbanwe mgbanwe mpaghara na 1967, 1976 na 1991 mere ka Enugwu bụrụ isi obodo nke steeti Enugu ugbu a. Na iri ato Mee 1967 ka a kpọpụtara Enugwu isi obodo Republic of Biafra dị mkpụmkpụ; n'ihi na a mara Enugwu ka "isi obodo Igbo ." Ka ndị agha Naịjirịa nwụchiri Enugwu, e bufere isi obodo Biafra n'Umuahia .

N'afọ Otu puku nari iiyolu na iri ano na ise ka ndị Briten malitere mkparịta ụka ha na ụmụafọ ala ahụ ga-abụ Enugwu gbasara inweta ya iji dọba okporo ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè Eastern Line na ịrụ ụgbọ okporo ígwè. Ụlọ mbụ e wuru n'ebe ahụ bụ na ebe obibi nwa oge nke nwere ụlọ apịtị ndị Igbo nke WJ Leck na ụfọdụ ndị Europe bi na Hill-top, bụ nanị larịị dị n'elu ihe mkpuchi ahụ na-atụgharị n'ihu ugwu Milliken. Ihe ochie nke ebe obibi ochie nke ndị colonial a na-akpọ "European quarters" ka na-ejupụta na Hill-top, nke dị n'akụkụ obodo Enugwu-Ngwo. Obodo ọzọ a maara dị ka Ugwu Alfred (Igbo: Alfred's Hill) ma ọ bụ "Alfred's Camp", nke otu Alfred Inoma (onye ndu ndị ọrụ amaala si Onitsha ) na ndị ọrụ ya bi, dị n'akụkụ ugwu. [4] [5] Ka ndị Briten nwetachara ala ahụ, Frederick Lugard, bụ Gọvanọ Naịjiria n’oge ahụ, kpọpụtara aha ya bụ colliery wuru n’ala ala Udi Hills Enugu Coal Camp iji mata ọdịiche dị na ya na Enugwu Ngwo [6] nke na-ele obodo ahụ anya site n’elu elu. akpukpa n'odida anyanwu Enugu. [7] Ebe mbụ a na-egwupụta coal na mpaghara Enugwu bụ Udi nke mepere n'afọ 1915 bụ nke e mechiri afọ abụọ ka e mesịrị were dochie anya ogbunigwe Iva Valley. [8] [9] Enugwu ghọrọ nnukwu ebe a na-egwupụta coal na naanị nke dị mkpa na West Africa. [4] Ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè Eastern Line nke jikọtara Enugu na Port Harcourt bụ nke arụchara n'afọ 1916 iji bupụ coal site n'ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ya [3] [8] nke e ji mee obodo ahụ maka nke a. [10] Enugwu ghọrọ otu n'ime obodo ole na ole dị n'Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ Afrịka emepụtara site na mmekọrịta ya na ndị Europe. [11] Ka ọ na-erule n'afọ 1916, gọọmentị colonial hibere akụkụ nke Enugwu edobere maka ndị Europe. Ebe a maara ugbu a dị ka Government Reserved Area (GRA) ghọrọ European Quarters nke dị n'ebe ugwu nke Osimiri Ogbete; N'akụkụ nke a bụ akụkụ e mepụtara maka ndị bi n'Africa nke dị na ndịda nke osimiri ahụ. Mpaghara a wuru n'Enugwu nwere mpaghara abụọ a, ma ka ọ na-erule afọ 1917 obodo ahụ nwetara ọkwa obodo. N'akụkụ Africa nke obodo ahụ ngwa ngwa nke ndị ọrụ na-akwaga mba ọzọ kpalitere mmepe nke ogige squatter na Udi Hills n'akụkụ ebe a na-egwupụta coal na Ndagwurugwu Iva. [5]

Na 1938 Enugwu ghọrọ isi obodo nchịkwa nke Eastern Region . Ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị na-egwu kol n'Enugwu tolitere site na puku isii (n'ime ọtụtụ ndị Udi ) na 1948 ruo 8,000 na 1958. Ndị obodo Enugwu gbagoro nke ukwuu site na nrụpụta ya; Ndị bi n'obodo ahụ ruru 62,000 na 1952. [9] Ngwuputa ogbunigwe n'Enugwu na-enwe ọgba aghara mgbe ụfọdụ, dịka ihe mere na 18 Nọvemba 1949 gosipụtara mgbe ndị uwe ojii gbagburu ndị ogbunigwe 21 ma gbuo mmadụ iri ise na otu merụrụ ahụ n'okpuru ọchịchị Britain. Mgbuchapụ a bịara mara dị ka "Mgbapụ Ndagwurugwu Iva" [12] kpalitere echiche ndị mba ma ọ bụ "Zikist" n'etiti ọtụtụ ndị Naijiria, ma karịsịa n'etiti ndị Naijiria ọwụwa anyanwụ. [6] [9] [13] "Zikisim" bụ otu mgbe Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ gasịrị nke e mere site na mmasị Mmahadum Nnamdi Azikiwe bụ onye ama ama na National Council of Naijiria na Cameroons (NCNC). Mgbụgba égbè ahụ ziri ezi mgbe oge ọgba aghara gasịrị mgbe ndị na-egwupụta akụ́kụ́ kpasuru iwe n'ihi nkwenkwe bụ́ na ndị ọrụ nchịkọta na-egbochi ụgwọ ọrụ ha zuru ezu, bụ́ nkwenkwe nke ndị nta akụkọ na-akwado mba ahụ kwadoro. Ọtụtụ n'ime ndị Zikists gbalịrị iji égbè Iva Valley gbaa ebumnobi ime obodo ha ma chụpụ ọchịchị alaeze ukwu Britain, na Naijiria. [13] E bipụtakwara nkọwa gbasara ihe ahụ merenụ n’akwụkwọ ndekọta onye Britain bi n’Enugwu n’oge ahụ bụ James Stewart Smith. [14]

Nnwere onwe, agha, na mgbeMèzi

Enugwu ghọrọ obodo n'afọ 1956 ebe Umaru Altine buru onye isi obodo mbụ. [9] Ka afọ anọ gachara, Naịjirịa nwetara nnwere onwe na 1960. Na 27 Mee 1967 ọchịchị Naijiria kewara mpaghara ọdịda anyanwụ, ugwu na ọwụwa anyanwụ gaa na steeti iri na abụọ [15] wee mee Enugwu isi obodo steeti Ọwụwa Anyanwụ ọhụrụ. [11] Na 30 May 1967 ka a kpọpụtara Enugwu isi obodo Republic of Biafra nke dị mkpụmkpụ, nke e mebere na steeti ọwụwa anyanwụ Naijiria nke East Central, Cross River na Rivers . [16] [17] Ojukwu kwuputara Biafra n'ihi Eastern Nigeria ka ndị otu ha wakporo ma merụọ ahụ ma gbuo n'ụdị mwakpo agbụrụ nke ụfọdụ agbụrụ ndị ọzọ malitere n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke mba ahụ na-esochi mbuso agha nke mbụ nke ọtụtụ ndị ọrụ Igbo kpara, bụ nke ndị isi ugwu. Egburu ndị ndu Naijiria na ndị ọzọ. Ndị na-amakarị ndị Igbo ọwụwa anyanwụ Naijiria bụ ndị Hausa / Fulani bi na ugwu Naijiria. [18] Agha nke sitere n'ebe ugwu na nkewa (1967-1970) na mwakpo na-aga n'ihu na-awakpo ndị Igbo nọ n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke Nigeria na-eduga [6] Igbo ndị si ugwu na ọdịda anyanwụ Nigeria ịlaghachi na mpaghara "ụmụ amaala" ha na ọwụwa anyanwụ Nigeria na Enugwu ghọrọ ebe njem. Radio Biafra, ọzọ bụ Voice of Biafra (nke bụbu East Nigerian Broadcasting Service), bụ nke hiwere isi n'Enugwu; [19] site na ebe a ka onye ndu Biafra, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, kwusara okwu na okwu nduhie nye Biafra na Naijiria. [20] [21] N'ihi agha ahụ, Enugwu hụrụ mbelata na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị na-abụghị ndị Igbo, karịsịa ndị na-abụghị ndị ọwụwa anyanwụ Nigeria. [4] N'abalị anọ nke ọnwa Ọktoba Otu puku nari itolu iri ano na ano ndị agha Naịjirịa jiri ngwa agha tụgbuo Enugwu n'ebe dịpụrụ adịpụ n'ókè ha tupu ha eweghara ya ka otu izuụka gachara, obere oge ka nke a gachara Umuahia ghọrọ isi obodo ọhụrụ nke mba ahụ. [22] Ọtụtụ afọ ka Republic of Biafra laghachiri na Naijiria, a ka na-ewere Enugwu ka "isi nime obodo Igbo." [6] [23]

 
Foto Satellite nke Enugwu na obodo ndị ọzọ gbara ya gburugburu. Enwere ike ịhụ escarpment Enugu n'aka ekpe ebe ọ nwere agba dị ọkụ; Enwere ike ịhụ osimiri Nyaba na ala.

N'agbanyeghị aha ya pụtara ugwu ugwu n'asụsụ Igbo, [11] [6] Enugu dina n'ụkwụ escarpment ọ bụghị ugwu. [8] Enugwu dị na gafere mmiri oku mmri [24] na ọdọ mmiri Benue ma nwee coal kachasị mma na mpaghara a. [25] Nkume okpuru ulo Precambrian dị na mpaghara a ka ejiri sedimenti na-ebu coal sitere na afọ Cretaceous na Tertiary machie. [26] Oghere coal na mpaghara Enugu dị n'agbata 1 and 2 metres (3.3 and 6.6 ft) na ọkpụrụkpụ ma ekwuru na ihe nchekwa ihe karịrị nde tọn 300. [25] Ugwu Enugu nke dị na oke nwere ike iru 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) . Ugwu elu gbara Enugwu gburugburu ka ọtụtụ akụkụ bụ n'okpuru nkume aja, ebe ala dị larịị bụ n'okpuru ala site na shale . Ọtụtụ n'ime escarpment nke sitere Enugwu ruo Orlu bụ nke ala na ebili mmiri mebiri. [27] Akụkụ ala ndị ọzọ dị n'Enugwu gụnyere ọdọ mmiri Nike dị nso nke arụrụ ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ Nike Lake. [6] Osimiri Ekulu, Asata, Ogbete, Aria, Idaw na Nyaba bụ osimiri isii kacha ukwuu dị n'obodo ahụ. [28] Osimiri Ekulu bụ mmiri kachasị ukwuu n'ime obodo Enugwu [29] na mmiri mmiri ya na-enye aka n'akụkụ akụkụ mmiri nke obodo ahụ. [27]

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