Elaeis guineensis

Elaeis guineensis
Elaeis guineensis0.jpg
taxon
aha taxonElaeis guineensis Dezie
ọkwa taxonspecies Dezie
nne na nna taxonakwụ Dezie
taxon a bụ isi mmalite nkeNmanu nri, palm kernel oil Dezie
ọnọdụ nchekwa IUCNLeast Concern Dezie
nwere ojijimedicinal plant Dezie
WikiProject na-elekọta yaWikiProject Invasion Biology Dezie
GRIN URLhttps://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=14936 Dezie

Elaeis guineensis bụ ụdị nkwụ a na-akpọkarị nkwụ mmanụ ma mgbe ụfọdụ, nkwụ mmanụ Afrịka ma ọ bụ abụba macaw. Ọ bụ isi mmalite nke mmanụ nkwụ. A mụrụ ya n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ na ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ Afrịka, ọkachasị mpaghara dị n'etiti Angola na Gambia; aha ụdị, guineensis, na-ezo aka na aha maka mpaghara ahụ, Guinea, ọ bụghị mba nke oge a na-ebu aha ahụ ugbu a. A na-emekwa ụdị ahụ ugbu a na Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, Central America, Cambodia, West Indies, na ọtụtụ agwaetiti dị na Indian na Pacific Ocean. A na-ejikwa nkwụ mmanụ America a na-akpọ Elaeis oleifera na nkwụ yiri ya, Attalea maripa, emepụta mmanụ nkwụ.

Mmanụ nkwụ nwere ike imepụta mmanụ karịa mpaghara ala ọ bụla, karịa ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ na-emepụta mmanụ (ihe dị ka okpukpu itoolu karịa soy na okpukpu 4.5 karịa rapeseed).[1]

NkọwaMèzi

E. guineensis bụ monocotyledonous.[2] Ogwe nkwụ ndị tozuru etozu nwere otu ogwe ma na-eto ruo mita 20 (66 ) n'ogologo. Akwụkwọ ya dị n'ogologo ma ruo mita 35. Osisi nkwụ na-eto eto na-amị ihe dị ka akwụkwọ iri ato (30) n'afọ. Nkwụ ndị e guzobere n'ime afọ 10 na-emepụta ihe dị ka akwụkwọ 20 n'afọ. A na-emepụta okooko osisi n'ìgwè; okooko osisi ọ bụla dị obere, nwere sepals atọ na petals atọ.

Ịkụ iheMèzi

 
Mkpụrụ osisi nkwụ mmanụ

Maka hekta ọ bụla nke nkwụ mmanụ, nke a na-ewepụta n'afọ niile, mmepụta kwa afọ na-eme ka tọn 20 nke mkpụrụ osisi na-amị 4,000 kilogram nke mmanụ nkwụ na 750 kg nke mkpụrụ mkpụrụ osisi na na-amịa 500 kg nke mmanụ osisi nkwụ dị elu, yana 600 kg nke nri kernel. A na-edozi nri ọka maka iji ya dị ka nri anụ ụlọ.[3]

Mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketaMèzi

GenomeMèzi

Ogologo: 1,800 megabase. Usoro izizi dị na 2013.[2]

ChromosomesMèzi

Diploid, nke nwere ọnụọgụ diploid nke 2n = 32.[2]

Ụdị dị iche icheMèzi

Ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị bi n'Eshia dị oke ala. Osisi ndị na-agụnye ọrụ ugbo na Eshia sitere na naanị osisi anọ, nke onwe ha nwere ike ịbụ nsonaazụ nke otu nne na nna.[4]

Ịzụlite Ịdị n'OtuMèzi

N'adịghị ka ndị ikwu ndị ọzọ, nkwụ mmanụ anaghị emepụta alaka; mgbasa bụ site na ịgha mkpụrụ.

A họrọla ọtụtụ ụdị na ụdị Elaeis guineensis nke nwere njirimara dị iche iche. Ndị a gụnyere:[5]

  • E. guineensis fo. dura
  • E. guineensis var. pisifera
  • E, guineensis fo. tenera

Mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa nke ọrụ ugboMèzi

N'afọ 2013, a chọpụtara mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa na-achịkwa ọkpụrụkpụ mkpokoro, na-eme ka o kwe omume ịchọpụta ọnọdụ tenera (DxP) mgbe nkwụ ka nọ n'ụlọ akwụkwọ.[6]

Mmepụta mmanụ nkwụMèzi

 
Mkpụrụ osisi nkwụ mmanụ

A na-ewepụta mmanụ site na mkpụrụ osisi (mmanụ nkwụ, mmanụ a na-eri eri) na kernel (mmanụ mkpụrụ nkwụ, nke a na-eji na nri na maka imepụta ncha). Maka 100 kilogram ọ bụla nke mkpụrụ osisi, enwere ike iwepụta 22 kilogram nke mmanụ nkwụ na kwa 1.6 kilogram nke mmanụ mkpụrụ nkwụ.

Nnukwu mmanụ nke nkwụ mmanụ (dị elu dị ka lita 7,250 kwa hekta kwa afọ) emeela ka ọ bụrụ ihe a na-ejikarị esi nri na Ndịda Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia na mpaghara okpomọkụ nke Africa. Ojiji ọ na-abawanye na ụlọ ọrụ nri azụmahịa n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke ụwa na-akwalite site na ọnụahịa ya dị ọnụ ala,[7] nkwụsi ike oxidative dị elu nke ngwaahịa a nụchara anụcha, na ọkwa dị elu nke antioxidants.[8][9][10]

Nnyocha nkwụ mmanụMèzi

Akwụkwọ akụkọ sayensị ndị dị mkpa na-ebipụta na nkwụ mmanụ na isiokwu ndị metụtara ya gụnyere:[11]

  • Journal of Oil Palm Research (JOPR)
  • Journal of Applied Polymer Science
  • Akwụkwọ Ozi Nchekwa
  • Nkà na ụzụ Bioresource
  • Omume na Ecology na Evolution

Mmetụta mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na gburugburu ebe obibiMèzi

Mmetụta mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na gburugburu ebe obibi nke ịkụ nkwụ mmanụ bụ isiokwu na-ese okwu nke ukwuu.[12][13] Mmanụ nkwụ bụ ihe ọkụkụ bara uru ma na-enye isi ọrụ. Ọ na-enye ọtụtụ obere ndị nwe ala ohere isonye na akụ na ụba ego ma na-akpatakarị mmelite nke akụrụngwa (ụlọ akwụkwọ, okporo ụzọ, nkwukọrịta, na ihe ndi ozo) n'ime mpaghara ahụ. [citation needed] Dị ka IBGE mmanụ nkwụ bụ ọkụkụ a na-ahụkarị na omume agroforestry na Amazon.[14][15] Otú ọ dị, e nwere ikpe ebe ubi nkwụ mmanụ weghaara ala ọdịnala n'enweghị ụdị ndụmọdụ ma ọ bụ ụgwọ ọ bụla, na-eduga na esemokwu ọha na eze n'etiti ubi na ndị bi n'ógbè ahụ.[16][17] N'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ, ubi nkwụ mmanụ na-adabere na ọrụ si mba ọzọ ma ọ bụ ndị mbịarambịa iwu na-akwadoghị, na nchegbu ụfọdụ banyere ọnọdụ ọrụ na mmetụta mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya nke omume ndị a.[18]

HụkwaMèzi

  • Ike na gburugburu ebe obibi
  • Journal of Oil Palm Research
  • Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Plantation Crops
  • Ụlọ Ọrụ Mmanụ Mmanụ Mkpụrụ Nkwụ nke Malaysia
  • Ndepụta nke Arecaceae genres
  • Mmetụta mmekọrịta na gburugburu ebe obibi nke mmanụ nkwụ

EdensibịaMèzi

  1. Michael Le Page (May 5, 2018). "The real palm oil problem: it's not just in your food". New Scientist. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Neale (2017-04-28). "Novel Insights into Tree Biology and Genome Evolution as Revealed Through Genomics". Annual Review of Plant Biology 68 (1): 457–483. DOI:10.1146/annurev-arplant-042916-041049. ISSN 1543-5008. PMID 28226237. 
  3. About the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry. Malaysian Palm Oil Board.
  4. Drenth (2016-08-04). "Fungal and Oomycete Diseases of Tropical Tree Fruit Crops". Annual Review of Phytopathology 54 (1): 373–395. DOI:10.1146/annurev-phyto-080615-095944. ISSN 0066-4286. PMID 27491435. 
  5. Tropicos.
  6. Singh (August 2013). "The oil palm SHELL gene controls oil yield and encodes a homologue of SEEDSTICK". Nature 500 (7462): 340–344. DOI:10.1038/nature12356. PMID 23883930. 
  7. Wayback Machine. web.archive.org (2009-04-26). Retrieved on 2022-09-05.
  8. Che Man (1999). "Quality changes of RBD palm olein, soybean oil and their blends during deep-fat frying". Journal of Food Lipids 6 (3): 181–193. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4522.1999.tb00142.x. 
  9. Matthäus (2007). "Use of palm oil for frying in comparison with other high-stability oils". European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109 (4): 400–409. DOI:10.1002/ejlt.200600294. 
  10. Sundram (2003). "Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition". Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12 (3): 355–62. PMID 14506001. 
  11. Google Scholar.
  12. Palm oil - rainforest in your shopping. Friends of the Earth. Archived from the original on 2007-10-16. Retrieved on 2007-11-29.
  13. Fitzherbert (2008). "How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?". Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23 (10): 538–545. DOI:10.1016/j.tree.2008.06.012. PMID 18775582. 
  14. Culturas temporárias e permanentes (pt). IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Archived from the original on 2022-03-03. Retrieved on 2022-03-15.
  15. Garrett (2021-10-18). "Forests and Sustainable Development in the Brazilian Amazon: History, Trends, and Future Prospects". Annual Review of Environment and Resources 46 (1): 625–652. DOI:10.1146/annurev-environ-012220-010228. ISSN 1543-5938. 
  16. Oro Landowners' Declaration on Large-Scale Commercial Extraction of Natural Resources and the Expansion of Oil Palm Nucleus Estates. Forest Peoples Programme. Archived from the original on 2011-02-02. Retrieved on 2007-11-29.
  17. Palm oil cultivation for biofuel blocks return of displaced people in Colombia. iDMC. Archived from the original on 2007-11-27. Retrieved on 2007-11-29.
  18. Ghosts on our Own Land: Indonesian Oil Palm Smallholders and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm. Forest Peoples Programme. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved on 2009-03-30.

Njikọ mpụgaMèzi

Ịgụ ihe ọzọMèzi