Ụlọ akụ́

ụlọ akụ bụ ụlọ ọrụ ego nke na-anabata nkwụnye ego n'aka ọha na eze ma na-emepụta ihe nkwụnye ego mgbe ọ na-agbazinye ego n'otu oge .[1] Ụlọ akụ nwere ike ịrụ ọrụ ịgbazinye ego ozugbo ma ọ bụ na-apụtaghị ìhè site na ahịa isi obodo.

N'ihi na ụlọ akụ na-arụ ọrụ dị mkpa na nkwụsi ike ego na akụ na ụba nke mba, ọtụtụ ikike na-achịkwa ụlọ akụ dị elu. Ọtụtụ mba emeela usoro a maara dị ka ụlọ akụ na-echekwa ego, nke ụlọ akụ na ya na-ejide akụ mmiri ruru naanị akụkụ nke ụgwọ ha ugbu a. Na mgbakwunye na iwu ndị ọzọ e bu n'uche iji hụ na ego, ụlọ akụ na-enwekarị ihe kachasị mkpa dabere na ụkpụrụ mba ụwa, nkwekọrịta Basel.

Ụlọ akụ n'echiche nke oge a malitere na narị afọ nke iri na anọ na obodo ndị nwere ọganihu nke Renaissance Italy ma n'ọtụtụ ụzọ na-arụ ọrụ dị ka ihe na-aga n'ihu nke echiche na echiche nke kredit na ịgbazinye ego nke nwere mgbọrọgwụ na ụwa ochie. Na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ụlọ akụ, a ọnụ ọg -  karịsịa, ndị  Medicis, ndị Fuggers, ndị Welders, ndị Berenbergs, na ndị Rothschilds -eekerewo ókè bụ isi kemgbe ọtụtụ narị afọ.kerewo òkè bụ isi kemgbe ọtụtụ narị afọ ekerewo òkè bụ isi kemgbe ọtụtụ narị afọekerewo òkè bụ isi kemgbe ọtụtụ narị afọụgu

a number of banking dynastiesÀtụ:Snd notably, the Medicis, the Fuggers, the Welsers, the Berenbergs, and the RothschildsÀtụ:Snd have played a central role over many centuries. The oldest existing retail bank is Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena (founded in 1472), while the oldest existing merchant bank is Berenberg Bank (founded in 1590).

Akụkọ ihe mere emeMèzi

   

 
Ihe osise a nke narị afọ nke iri na ise na-egosi ndị na-ere ego na banca (bench) n'oge nhicha nke ụlọ nsọ ahụ.

  The concept of banking may have begun in the times of ancient Assyria and Babylonia with merchants offering loans of grain as collateral within a barter system. Lenders in ancient Greece and during the Roman Empire added two important innovations: they accepted deposits and changed money.[Tinye edensibịa] Archaeology from this period in Iran, ancient China and India also shows evidence of money lending.

Oge ụlọ akụ dị ugbu a nwere ike ịchọta na oge ochie na mmalite Renaissance Italy, na obodo ndị bara ọgaranya n'etiti na n'ebe ugwu dị ka Florence, Lucca, Siena, Venice na Genoa. Ezinụlọ Bardi na Peruzzi na-achịkwa ụlọ akụ na narị afọ nke 14 na Florence, na-eguzobe alaka n'ọtụtụ akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke Europe.[2] Giovanni di Bicci de 'Medici guzobere otu n'ime ụlọ akụ ndị Ịtali a ma ama, Ụlọ Akụ̀ Medici, na 1397.[3] Republic of Genoa guzobere ụlọ akụ nkwụnye ego steeti mbụ a maara, Banco di San Giorgio (Bank of St. George), na 1407 na Genoa, Ịtali.[4]

Oge ỌhụrụMèzi

Akụkụ nke ụlọ akụ na mbipụta nke akwụkwọ ego pụtara na narị afọ nke 17 na nke 18. Ndị ahịa malitere ịchekwa ọlaedo ha na ndị na-emepụta ọlaedo nke London, ndị nwere ụlọ nkwakọba ihe onwe ha, na ndị na'ụgwọ maka ọrụ ahụ. N'ịgbanwe ego ọ bụla nke ọla dị oké ọnụ ahịa, ndị na-akpụ ọla na-enye akwụkwọ mpịakọta na-egosi ọnụọgụ na ịdị ọcha nke ọla ha nwere dị ka bailee; enweghị ike ịnye akwụkwọ mpịaka ndị a, naanị onye mbụ na-etinye ego nwere ike ịnakọta ngwongwo echekwara.

Okwu mmaliteMèzi

  1. Compare: Bank of England. Rulebook Glossary (1 January 2014). Retrieved on 20 July 2020. “bank means:
    (1) a firm with a Part 4A Permission to carry on the regulated activity of accepting deposits and is a credit institution, but is not a credit union, friendly society or a building society; or
    (2) an EEA bank.”
  2. Hoggson, N. F. (1926) Banking Through the Ages, New York, Dodd, Mead & Company.
  3. Goldthwaite, R. A. (1995) Banks, Places and Entrepreneurs in Renaissance Florence, Aldershot, Hampshire, Great Britain, Variorum
  4. Macesich (30 June 2000). "Central Banking: The Early Years: Other Early Banks", Issues in Money and Banking. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers (Greenwood Publishing Group). ISBN 978-0-275-96777-2. Retrieved on 2009-03-12. “The first state deposit bank was the Bank of St. George in Genoa, which was established in 1407.”